📚   As peer-to-peer transactions based on smart contracts, decentralized exchanges are vulnerable to protocol flaws. These flaws tend to look similar to vulnerabilities in legacy financial systems like blind raising or counter-bidding. In this empirical study, Cornell University researchers look at arbitrage bot activity against known and unknown methods of exploiting discrepancies in smart contract security protocols. Through various scenarios, like front running or counter-bidding, the researchers show how differences between smart contract security and base-layer consensus security offer viable rewards for exploitive programs. How DEXs manage time lag, bidding orders, and other arbitrage opportunties has real world effects for actual customers. Empirically, bots were always profitable P2P systems in Cornell's research, meaning the opposite trading party consistently lost money when paired with a bot. While mistakes on P2P do happen, the certainty of profit for bots points toward remaining protocol issues for DEXs to address - Link
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Dr. Ayo Akinyele, a cryptographic researcher, has announced the founding of Bolt Labs with $1.5M in seed funding from Dekrypt Capital, Xspring, Lemniscap, and Access Ventures; Bolt Labs is developing the BOLT protocol, a Lightning layer 2 protocol for totally masking channel funds; Dr. Akinyele plans on making BOLT interoperable and is being advised by the Electronic Coin Company CEO Zooko Wilcox - Link
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Coinbase has added crypto-to-crypto trading for 11 new countries, bringing the total up to 53; of the 11, five hail from Latin America, five from South East Asia plus New Zealand; Coinbase noted how the crypto economy is moving from an 'investment' phase to a 'utility' phase and is doubling down in an effort to bring more markets onto CoinbaseLink
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Japan's Financial Services Authority (FSA) will be subjectively asking certain exchanges to beef up cold wallet security, particularly for internal management: Reuters; last year the agency heavily restricted hot wallets in the wake of multiple security hacks and breaches - Link
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balwinderdev

 
Dr. Ayo Akinyele, a cryptographic researcher, has announced the founding of Bolt Labs with $1.5M in seed funding from Dekrypt Capital, Xspring, Lemniscap, and Access Ventures; Bolt Labs is developing the BOLT protocol, a Lightning layer 2 protocol for totally masking channel funds; Dr. Akinyele plans on making BOLT interoperable and is being advised by the Electronic Coin Company CEO Zooko Wilcox - Link
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balwinderdev

 
📚   Crypto mining has gone through four distinct phases in what Satoshi knowingly forsaw as a Bitcoins mining arms war. The Genesis Block mined by Satoshi used basic CPU processing power that could muster about one block per 50 minutes. Satoshi knew mining could easily be overtaken by GPUs, to which he asked for gentleman's agreement on Bitcoin Talk forum in 2010. As word grew, GPU mining took over in 2011, especially when a Bitcoin Talk user Puddinpop open sourced the GPU mining code. One miner, ArtForz, grew to control some 20% of the hash rate with a homebuilt GPU rig. FPGAs came next in 2011-2012, but were short lived due to difficulties working with Bitcoin's SHA-256 script. Finally came ASICs with the very first capable of mining 60 GH/s compared to GPUs topping out at 1 GH/s. AISCs moved mining from a hobby to a profession, with farm mining businesses like Bitmain and newer rigs running at over 200 times what the earliest ASICs could do - Link
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